Since 1994 of release
Repair and car operation
- Cars of mark Skoda Felicia
Identification numbers of the car
Acquisition of spare parts
Technology of service, the tool and the workplace equipment
Operations procedure in extreme situations
Start of the engine from the auxiliary power supply
Change of wheels
Поддомкрачивание and towage
Identification of leaks
Checks of readiness of the car to operation
Automobile химикалии, oils and greasings
Диагостика malfunctions of knots and car systems
Features of the countries PDD of Europe
+ The maintenance instruction
+ Routine maintenance
+ Engine repair
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ The power supply system
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body and salon furnish
+ Onboard electric equipment
ôîòî ïëåéáîé îáíàæåííûõ äåâóøåê
Technology of service, the tool and the workplace equipment
The sizes/marks of a class proch-nosti standard (SAE and USS) bolts
The sizes/marks of a class of durability of metric bolts
Technology of service
There are some techniques of performance of procedures of maintenance service and car repairs on which the reader will find references in the text of the given Management. Following by it will make work of the mechanic-fan of more effective, will allow to organise in the best way and qualitatively to execute various technical procedures and is pledge of careful and full performance of all necessary works.
As fixture are called nuts, bolts, hairpins and the screws serving for connection among themselves of two or more details. At work with fixture it is necessary to remember some things constantly. Practically in any carving fixture this or that kind контрящих and stopping adaptations is applied. It can be lock washers, counternuts, lock tags or fixing компаунд for carvings. All used fixture should be absolutely pure and direct, with not broken carving and not rounded corners шестигранных heads which the wrench is put on. It is necessary to take for a rule without fail to make replacement of the damaged nuts and bolts by the new. Special самоконтрящиеся nuts with nylon or fiber inserts are not subject to a reuse, as at отдавании lose the контрящие properties and at assemblage always should be replaced.
"The become attached" fixture for the purpose of simplification of unscrewing and in order to avoid damage before отдаванием should be processed special getting structure. Many mechanics prefer to use for this purpose turpentine which it is convenient to put from the special small canister with a long nouse. After fixture wetting by getting structure, it is necessary to give to structure within several minutes properly to impregnate the oxidised contact layer. Strongly rusted fixture can be cut down a chisel, is cut ножовкой or removed by means of special гайколома.
At cutting of a head of a bolt or обламывании hairpins on assemblage, the rest of a carving part can be drilled or taken by means of a special ex-tractor. The majority of repair trucks can undertake performance of this, also as well as others (for example, restoration of the broken carving in carving apertures), repair procedures.
Flat and lock washers at assemblage should be established always into place in the original positions. The damaged washers always replace with the new. Between a lock washer and a soft metal surface (for example aluminium), thin sheet metal or plastic always it is necessary to establish flat washers.
The sizes of fixture
For many reasons manufacturers of cars all apply metric fixture more widely and more widely. However, it is important to know a difference between used sometimes standard (named also American, or standard SAE) and more universal in system of measures metric fixture as, despite external similarity, they are not interchangeable.
All bolts, both standard, and metric are classified on diameter, a step of a carving and length. For example, the standard bolt 1/2 - 13 х 1 has an inch floor in diameter, 13 coils of a carving on one inch and length of 1 inch. Metric bolt М12 - 1.75 х 25 has diameter of 12 mm, a carving step (distance between the next coils) 1.75 mm and length of 25 mm. Both bolts are outwardly almost identical, however are not interchangeable.
In addition to the listed signs, both metric, and standard bolts can be identified by head survey. To begin with, the distance between лысками heads of a metric bolt is measured in mm, whereas at standard - in inches (the same is fair and for nuts). As consequence, the standard wrench is not necessary for use with metric fixture, and on the contrary. Besides, on heads большей parts of standard bolts usually are available the radial notches defining the maximum admissible effort of a tightening of a bolt (durability degree). The more quantity of notches, the above admissible effort (on cars bolts of a class of durability from 0 to 5 are usually applied). The class of durability of metric bolts is defined by a digital code. Code figures are usually cast, as on standard fixture, on a bolt head (on cars bolts of classes of durability 8.8, 9.8, and 10.9 are usually applied).
Also, on labels of a class of durability, standard nuts can be distinguished from the metric. Dot labels are applied to identification of a class of durability of standard nuts, проштамповываемые on one of face surfaces of a nut while marks of metric nuts are made with the help besides a digital code. Than quantity of points, or the more value of a digital code, the above admissible effort of a tightening of a nut more.
End faces of metric hairpins also are marked according to a class of their durability. The digital code whereas on smaller have marks in the form of geometrical figures is put on large hairpins.
It is necessary to notice that the considerable part of fixture, in particular a class of durability from 0 to 2, is not marked at all. In this case unique way of difference of standard fixture from metric is measurement of a step of a carving, or сравнивание carvings with unequivocally identified.
Standard fixture often name also, contrary to metric, fixture of standard SAE, however, it is necessary to remember that under classification SAE only small fixture gets. The large fixture with not metric carving is fixture of the American standard (USS).
As the fixture of the same geometrical size (both standard, and metric) can have various classes of durability, at replacement by the car of bolts, nuts and hairpins it is necessary to pay attention to conformity of a class of durability of established new fixture to a class of durability of the old.
Procedure and order of a tightening of carving connections
The tightening большей should be made parts of carving connections with the efforts defined by requirements of Specifications, resulted in the beginning of each Chapter of the present Management (it is necessary to understand as effort of a tightening of fixture put to it at a tightening a twisting moment). The tightening with excessive effort can lead to infringement of integrity of fixture whereas недотягивание it conducts to unreliability of connection of interfaced components. Bolts, screws and hairpins, depending on a material of which they are made also diameter of a carving part, usually have strictly certain admissible efforts of a tightening, many of which as already it was mentioned above, are resulted in Specifications in the beginning of each Chapter. Strictly adhere to the resulted recommendations about efforts of a tightening of fixture applied on the car. For a tightening of the fixture which has been not mentioned in Specifications, it is necessary to use the map of the admissible moments resulted more low. The values resulted in the table are focused on fixture of classes of durability 2 and 3 (more high-class fixture supposes a tightening with the big effort), besides, it is meant that the tightening dry (with not greased carving) the fixture screwed in steel or cast (not aluminium) a detail is made.
The sizes of metric carvings
The sizes of trumpet carvings
The sizes of carvings of the American standard
Any fixture located on a perimetre detail (such as bolts of a head of cylinders, the pallet картера and various covers) in order to avoid detail deformation should be given and be tightened in strictly certain order. The order of a tightening and отдавания such fixture is resulted in corresponding Heads of the Management. If the special order is not stipulated, in order to avoid a component curvature, it is necessary to adhere resulted below the instruction. At the first stage all bolts or nuts should be tightened by hand. Further, each of them should be by turns held on on one complete revolution, and transition of odes of one bolt/nut to another should be carried out in a diagonal order (cross-wise). Further, having returned to the first bolt/nut, it is necessary to repeat procedure in the same order, tightening fixture for a half-turn. Continue procedure, tightening each bolt/nut this time already on a turn quarter for one approach until all of them will not appear tightened with demanded effort. At отдавании fixture it is necessary to operate in a similar manner, but upside-down.
Dismantling of components
Dismantling of all components should be carried out in such manner that at installation each detail could be established on the former place and correct image. Remember characteristic external features of knot, in case of need, make landing marks of the details which installation can be into place made in the ambiguous image (for example, the persistent washer equipped with a flute on a shaft). Placing of the removed details on a pure working surface in that order in what their removal was made will be good idea. Useful there will be also a drawing up of the elementary schematic sketches or step-by-step photographing of a component subject to dismantle.
At отдавании fixture try to make marks of its initial position on assemblage. Often, installation of fixture and washers on a former place right after removal of a corresponding detail allows to avoid mess at assemblage. In the absence of such possibility, all fixture should be put in specially prepared for this purpose broken into sections and in appropriate way the marked box, or it is simple on the separate marked boxes. Such line of action appears especially useful at work with the components consisting of set of fine details, such as the carburettor, the generator, клапанный the mechanism, the panel of devices or elements of a decorative upholstery of salon.
At a detachment of electric contacts and sockets it is necessary to pay attention to marks of wires or plaits by means of an adhesive tape with the digital on it digital or alphabetic code.
On all cars sealing linings are applied to hermetic sealing of a place of a joint of interfaced surfaces of two or more details and serve for prevention of leaks of oils and liquids and maintenance in elevated pressure or depression assemblage.
Often such linings before installation become covered liquid or pastelike sealing компаундом (hermetic). Often under the influence of time, temperatures or pressure occurs so strong “прикипание” interfaced surfaces to each other that division of details becomes an exigeant problem. With many cases to a successful partition of such knots helps отстукивание components outside on perimetre of a joint a hammer with soft the brisk. It is possible to take advantage for this purpose as well of a usual hammer, putting blows through the wooden or plastic prorate. It is not necessary to make обстукивание cast cases and fragile components. At occurrence of such difficulties always first of all check, whether weigh fixture it is removed.
Avoid подрычаживания details by means of a screw-driver or the mount, entered into joint area as sealing surfaces can be thus easily damaged that further will lead to development of leaks. If подрычаживания it is not possible to avoid "the become attached" elements of assemblage, use for this purpose the handle from old сметки, but remember that after all the formed chips should be carefully removed as from interfaced surfaces, and from within assemblages.
After division of details their interfaced surfaces should be smoothed carefully out with соскабливанием traces of a material of an old lining. The hardened fragments can be preliminary softened by means of the converter of a rust or a special chemical compound then are removed from an interfaced surface by a scraper. As a scraper the piece of a copper tube with the flattened out and pointed end in this case can be used. Use for this purpose of a copper tube is recommended, as copper usually is softer than materials applied in cars that reduces risk of damage of an interfaced surface. The rests of some linings easily can be removed by means of a copper brush, however, without dependence from the applied method, interfaced surfaces should become absolutely pure and dry. If for any reason the interfaced surface has appeared damaged, before assemblage of components fill defects прокладочным with hermetic. In most cases it is necessary to use not stiffening (or partially stiffening) hermetic.
Councils about removal of hoses
Measures of precautions which should be observed at removal of hoses, are very close to that at dismantle of linings. Avoid damage of surfaces of unions and branch pipes on which the ends of hoses as it can be at the bottom of development of leaks stretch. In a special measure the last concerns procedure of removal of hoses of a radiator. Owing to occurring in a path of system of cooling of various chemical reactions frequently occurs “прикипание” rubbers of hoses to interfaced surfaces of unions and branch pipes. For hose removal first of all ослабьте a collar of its fastening on the union. Then nippers seize a hose near to a collar and start to rotate it on the union / a connecting branch pipe to the right-to the left. Continue performance of procedure to a hose outright release, then remove a hose from the union. The small amount of the silicone or other greasing entered into a backlash between the union and a hose will facilitate work. Before hose installation grease its internal surface adjoining to an end face, and also an external surface of the union with a solution of soap water or a small amount of silicone greasing.
As extreme means, or in case of unequivocal necessity of replacement of a hose on the new end of a hose put on the union can be knifed and then is separated from an union surface. Thus try not to damage a knife union metal / a connecting branch pipe.
In case of damage шлангового a collar, replace it with the new. Collars of braided type usually weaken eventually, therefore, without dependence from a condition, as required it is better to replace them with collars of screw type.
Selection of the qualitative tool is one of basic requirements for everyone who plans independent performance of procedures of maintenance service or car repairs. At first sight, the expenses connected with acquisition of the demanded complete set of tools, can seem incommensurably big, however at сравнивании them with the expenses interfaced to performance of procedures of routine maintenance and the elementary car repairs on a car repair shop, will appear quite reasonable.
To help the average mechanic-fan with selection of the tool necessary at carrying out of various procedures on care by the car, described in the given Management, three lists of tools conditionally entitled as are more low resulted: the Tooling for routine maintenance and the minimum repair; the Tooling for the general and major repairs; and the Special tool. The owners of cars who do not have practical experience of carrying out of mechanical works, should begin with performance of the procedures limited to application of tools from the first list, raising thus qualification and gradually expanding a range of the activity. In process of acquisition of skills, it is possible to pass to performance more challenges, gradually expanding a choice of tools available on hands. After a while the gained experience will allow to start performance of more difficult works demanding application of the tool from the second list (for the general and car major repairs). When qualification of the executor will reach enough high level and will start to allow to save considerable means for independent performance of difficult repair procedures, it is possible to think of acquisition of the special tool.
Tooling on routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs
The list resulted more low includes a minimum of procedures of routine maintenance necessary for performance and insignificant car repairs of tools. Composers of the present Management recommend to begin with acquisition of the complete set of the combined wrenches (with usual рожковой a head on one end and with накидной on other). Despite considerable cost of the given complete set in comparison with cost of a set usual рожковых keys, expenses will be justified, since such keys possess advantages of both types.
· the Complete set of the combined keys from 8 to 19 mm
· the Adjustable spanner (to 35 mm)
· the Candle key with a rubber insert (petrol models)
· the Tool for adjustment of a candle backlash (petrol models)
· the Set measuring probeов
· Nippelnyj a key for prorolling of brakes
With a flat sting (100 mm in length on 6 mm in diameter)
With крестовым a sting (100 mm in length on 6 mm in diameter)
· the Combined flat-nose pliers
· Nozhovka on metal with a set of cloths
· the Pump for a rating of tyres
· the Manometer for pressure measurement in tyres
· the Lubricant pistol (syringe)
· the Canister under oil
· the Fine-grained emery paper
· the Wire brush
· the Tool for зачистки plugs and contacts of wires of the battery
· the Key for removal of the oil filter
· the Funnel (the average size)
· Props for car fixing in the lifted condition (2)
· Drain capacity
Tooling for the general and car major repairs
The given tool is necessary at carrying out of any operations on repair of the engine of the car and it is offered in addition to the first list. The given list includes the complete set of replaceable face heads. At considerable cost, the set of replaceable heads brings invaluable advantage, thanks to the universality and convenience in circulation, in particular in a combination with entering into the complete set of various type drives. It is recommended to prefer drives inch section 1/2 (instead of 3/8 inches) since they though are more expensive, can be used practically with any type динамометрических keys (in an ideal, the good mechanic should have at the order both types of drives). Cheaper alternative to the complete set of replaceable face heads is the set of tubular keys.
· the Complete set of replaceable face heads (including type heads “TORХ”) (or tubular keys), the sizes corresponding to the sizes of wrenches from the previous list
· the Ratchet reversive drive (for use with replaceable face heads)
· the Collar in length of 250 mm
· Kardannyj a drive (for use with replaceable face heads)
· the Dinamometrichesky key (with a drive of the same size, as for replaceable face heads)
· Samokontrjashchiesja nippers
· the Hammer with round brisk (nearby 230)
· the Hammer with soft brisk (plastic or rubber)
With a flat sting (length 150 mm and about 6.5 mm in diameter)
With a flat sting (strong № 2, 8 mm)
With крестовым a sting (№ 3 х 8 inches (203 mm))
With крестовым a sting (strong № 2)
· Clamping pincers
· Flat-nose pliers:
For electricians (with the isolated handles)
For lock rings (internal and external)
· the Chisel on 25 mm
· the Scraper (made of the copper tube flattened out and pointed from one end)
· Skrajber (чертилка)
· Small beards with a thin sting (1.6, 3.2, 4.8 mm)
· the Complete set шланговых clips
· the Set for prorolling of brakes
· the Complete set сверел
· the Steel ruler/measuring instrument of planeness
· the Complete set прутковых keys-shestigrannikov (Allen) (for heads with internal шестигранником)
· the Set of files
· the Wire brush (big)
· the Second complete set of props
· the Jack (hydraulic or ножничного type)
· the Resock with the closed lamp shade
The special tool
The tools being adequately expensive, not required regularly, or demanding at using performance of instructions of manufacturers get to the given category the list. If the field of activity of the mechanic-fan does not include frequent performance of difficult mechanical operations, acquisition of such tool will be a bad investment of means - it will be more reasonable to get it by sharing the cost with friends or as required to hire in car-care centre workshops.
Those tools which can be found in retail trade or which are issued for distribution on the services-centres of representation branches of the companies-manufacturers of cars are brought in the list only. Sometimes in the text of the Management the reader will face references to such special tools. Usually authors try to offer in parallel the alternative method, allowing to avoid obligatory application of the remote tool. In case to avoid application of the special tool it is impossible, and its acquisition in using is problematic, performance of corresponding works is better for entrusting experts of car-care centre.
· the Tool for compression клапанных springs
· the Tool for grinding in of valves
· the Adaptation for procleaning of flutes of piston rings
· the Tool for обжимания piston rings
· the Tool for installation of piston rings
· the Measuring instrument of degree of compression of gases in cylinders (компрессометр)
· the Vertical drill for processing of edges of cylinders
· Hon for processing of mirrors of cylinders
· the Measuring instrument of diameter of cylinders
· the Micrometer (micrometers) and-or циферблатный a calliper
· the Tool for centering of a disk of coupling
· the Ex-tractor of spherical hinges
· the Stripper of universal type
· the Shock screw-driver
· the Set циферблатного a measuring instrument
· the Stroboscope (with the inductive gauge)
· the Manual combined pump (vacuum/delivery)
· the Set of taps and лерок
· the Tachometer/tool for measurement of duration of the closed condition of contacts of the breaker
· the Universal tester for electric measurements
· the Elevating rigging
· the Tool for removal/installation of brake springs
· the Floor jack
To the beginner-mechanic can be offered some practical advice in respect of acquisition of the necessary tool for performance of procedures of routine maintenance and car repairs. By preparation for carrying out of procedures of routine maintenance or the minimum car repairs it is reasonable to get the tool separately. On the other hand, in case of planning of more large-scale works, it is easier and more reliable to buy the complete set of the modern tool in shop of a retail network. Complete set acquisition usually manages slightly more cheaply individual purchases and is often supplemented with the enclosed tool box. Further, for choice expansion, separate tools, additional complete sets and a tool box большего can be bought in addition the size. Gradual expansion of the complete set of tools will allow to stretch expenses and to be defined in a choice of really necessary tools.
Specialised tool shops are a unique source of acquisition of some special tools. Irrespective of a source choice, avoid cheap purchases, in particular at a choice of screw-drivers and replaceable face heads as term of their service for certain will appear short. The expenses connected with replacement and restoration of the cheap tool, as a result will appear incomparably more considerable, than expenses for unitary acquisition of the qualitative goods.
Care of the tool and its storage
The good tool is a valuable investment of means, therefore it is reasonable to take care of keeping it clean and constant availability for service. After using the tool, before folding in a storage place, always carefully wipe its surface pure dry rags, deleting traces of a dirt, greasing and the rests of metal particles. Never leave the tool scattered. After end of works attentively check space under a cowl and under the car on presence of the forgotten tool.
For storage of such tool as screw-drivers, flat-nose pliers, hammers, etc., the tool comb fixed in a convenient place on a wall of garage is ideally suited. Sets of wrenches and replaceable face heads should be stored in metal boxes. The precision measuring tool should be stored in inaccessible to influence of corrosion, dry and pure places.
Always it is necessary to pay attention to a condition of a working surface of the tool. The shock part бойка a hammer in the course of use is subject расклепыванию, screw-drivers lose in due course sharpening of the stings. Do not stint to give a few time and attention to that by means of an emery paper or a file to remove расклепы and to put in order cutting edges. It is irreversible the worn out or damaged tool in due time replace.
At careful leaving the tool will serve belief and the truth during very long term.
The workplace equipment
Speaking about the tool, it is necessary to recollect the workplace equipment. If carrying out of more serious work, than simple maintenance service of a vehicle is necessary, it is necessary to take care of preparation of the suitable worker of a platform.
It is necessary to recognise that many motorists are compelled to make dismantle of the engine and other similar works far not in the conditions of garage or a workshop. However, in any case the important requirement is roof or awning presence.
Whenever possible, any procedures on dismantling of parts of systems of the car should be made on a pure workbench with an equal working surface, or a strong table of convenient height. The workbench should be necessarily equipped by a vice with disclosing of sponges to 100 mm and with soft overlays on sponges.
As already it was mentioned above, on a working platform the pure dry place for storage of the tool, lubricant and cleaning liquids, шпаклевок, paint and varnish materials, etc. should be equipped
It is necessary to notice that absolutely necessary tool is the electrodrill, hence, the working platform should be equipped by the power supply for its connection. Presence of a drill with a cartridge to 9.5 mm and a set of qualitative drills appreciably will facilitate carrying out of many procedures.
At last, on a workplace always there should be a sufficient stock of old newspapers and pure, not ворсящейся the rags, intended for cleaning of a working platform, the tool and car details.
It is necessary to hand over working off in the centres on recycling in tight container.
Never make any works on the barefaced painted surface кузовных car panels, use protective overlays on wings, or, at the worst, cover the polished surfaces with old blankets.