Skoda Felicia

Since 1994 of release

Repair and car operation



Shkoda Felitsija
+ Cars of mark Skoda Felicia
+ The maintenance instruction
+ Routine maintenance
- Engine repair
   + Repair without extraction from the car of the petrol engine of 1.3 l
   + Repair without extraction from the car of the petrol engine of 1.6 l
   + Repair without extraction from the car of the diesel engine
   - Dismantle of the power unit and engine major repairs
      Removal from the car of the power unit - preparation and safety measures, the general data on a suspension bracket of the power unit
      Removal, partition and installation of the power unit
      Engine major repairs - preliminary data
      Dismantling, clearing, check of a condition and assemblage of a head of cylinders
      Removal, check of a condition and installation of a camshaft and pushers of valves (the engine 1.3)
      Removal and installation of an intermediate shaft (the diesel engine)
      Removal, check of a condition and installation of shatunno-piston assemblages
      Removal and check of a condition of a cranked shaft
      Cleaning and check of a condition of the block of cylinders/kartera of the engine
      Check of a condition and selection of loose leaves radical and шатунных bearings of a cranked shaft
      Assembly order of the engine after major repairs performance
      Installation of a cranked shaft and check of working backlashes of radical bearings
      Installation of piston rings
      Installation of shatunno-piston assemblages on the engine and check of working backlashes шатунных bearings
      Initial start of the engine after end of its major repairs
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ The power supply system
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Coupling
+ Transmission
+ Power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body and salon furnish
+ Onboard electric equipment



Removal, check of a condition and installation of shatunno-piston assemblages

Marks on the piston bottom

1 — an Arrow specifying a direction of rotation of a cranked shaft
2 — Registration number of manufacturer
3 — the Date of issue

4 — a manufacturer Trade mark
5 — Diameter of the piston (it is designated by letters And, In or)


Piston rings

1 — the First (top) компрессионное a ring
2 — the Second (bottom) компрессионное a ring

3 — Maslosemnoe a ring


Shatunno-piston group - the general data

The engine of 1.3 l

Pistons


Pistons are executed from the aluminium alloy, different by high thermal stability, considerable durability and hardness.

The piston consists of a skirt and the bottom. The skirt form provides due прилегание the piston to sleeve/cylinder walls, excepting possibility of its jamming in an operating time.

In the piston in lugs the piston finger with which help assemblage fastens to the top head of a rod is established.

The aperture axis under a piston finger is displaced concerning a piston axis. Such asymmetry has for an object minimising of the loadings arising during passage by assemblage ВМТ.

Pistons used in considered engines have a bimetallic design: in a zone of apertures under a piston finger four steel corbels, limiting fluctuations of diameter of the piston, the temperatures connected with changes are provided. Thanks to such protection began possible to lower backlashes between walls of pistons and a mirror of cylinders to size of 0.02 mm.

On a piston surface three flutes under installation of piston rings are provided. Over a flute of the first (top компрессионного rings are executed three additional flutes, having for an object restriction теплоотдачи from the hot bottom of the piston to the top ring which is in the heaviest operational conditions.

Designations are put on the piston bottom.

Pistons should steal up to sleeves/cylinders, corresponding to them on dimensional groups. At installation of shatunno-piston assemblages in the engine watch, that the label in the form of an arrow appeared developed in напрвлении rotations of a cranked shaft (i.e. to the left on the engine).

The surface of a skirt of the piston has the difficult form owing to what gauging of diameter is necessary for carrying out strictly in the established place, at height of 8 mm from the bottom cut of a skirt. Measurement should be made in a plane, a perpendicular axis of a piston finger. Thus, the temperature both the piston, and the measuring tool should equal 20С.

Pistons are issued only the nominal sizes and share on diameter on three dimensional groups (And, In and).

For the purpose of maintenance of stable work of the engine all four pistons should have the same weight. Weighing of pistons is made for observance of this condition in the course of manufacturing. The disorder of weights is corrected by removal of metal from a skirt.

Piston fingers


The piston finger provides шарнирное connection of the piston with a rod. The finger is executed from a high-quality steel, ground and polished. On an average part of a finger the top head of a rod sits down. The finger ends are passed in apertures in piston lugs. For fixing of the finger filled in assemblage lock rings are used.

The new finger is established in the piston with a small tightness, without a backlash or with the minimum backlash. In the plug of the top head of a rod the finger is put with a backlash. At excessive люфта fingers at loading increase on the engine start to knock.

Before installation of a finger from one of the piston parties the lock ring (use for ring landing by the special adaptation) is established. Then, from an opposite side in the piston piston finger slightly greased with impellent oil refuels. The finger refuels so that its end acted in the piston on size 1 1.5 mm. Further in the piston the top head of a rod also slightly greased with impellent oil refuels (track that the aperture маслотока in the top part of a rod has appeared it is directed aside, opposite, the specified arrow put on the bottom of the piston). Further fill a finger against the stop with its end face in the lock ring filled in the piston and establish the second lock ring on the other hand a finger.

Piston rings

Each of pistons is equipped with three piston rings established in specially done in top part of walls of the piston of a flute. The form and an order of landing of rings in flutes are shown on an illustration.

Top компрессионное the ring is made of a steel and chromeplated outside for the purpose of decrease in a component of a friction, and also protection of metal against aggressive influence of the hot fulfilled gases. The ring has the correct round form and symmetric section in the form of a rectangle with the truncated corners.

The second (bottom) компрессионное the ring is executed from pig-iron and has asymmetrical cross-section section in the form of a rectangle with an inclined outer side. The angle of slope of an external side of a ring makes nearby 1 thanks to what the ring clip to a cylinder mirror is necessary on very insignificant area. Deterioration of a contact platform provides density прилегания rings.
On one of face surfaces of this ring there is a label in the form of an inscription of "TORAHS". The ring should be established on the piston this label upwards.

The maslosemnoe ring consists of three separate sections: two narrow lateral rings and the wavy dilator placed between them. The general thickness of assemblage makes 3 mm.

The oil removed by a ring from a mirror of the cylinder is taken away through apertures in a flute in the piston and, further, in the pallet картера the engine.

All piston rings have a cutting design. Cuts of rings are called as locks, provide possibility of installation of rings on pistons, and, besides, serve for indemnification of thermal expansion.

The new ring most densely nestles on a mirror of the cylinder around the lock. In the course of further extra earnings the clamping effort is gradually levelled on ring perimetre, providing the maximum hermetic sealing of assemblage.

Replacement of piston rings by the worn out engine which cylinders have got out of the initial shape, leads to only short-term restoration of a compression as the ring cannot take the form of the worn out cylinder and its density прилегания is distributed non-uniformly.

Rods

Rods are forged from a special steel. The rod consists of the top head, a connecting core and the bottom, cutting head. In the top head of a rod запрессована the bronze plug which is carrying out a role of the bearing under landing of a piston finger. The connecting core has двутавровое section. The bottom head is cut in a plane, a perpendicular longitudinal axis of assemblage.

The surface of beds under installation of loose leaves шатунных bearings in a cutting bottom head of a rod is carefully processed. As a result of such processing interchangeability of covers шатунных bearings in view of what on covers and the bottom heads special adjusting labels are provided is lost. At factory assemblage of a label usually there correspond numberings of cylinders.


The cover fastens to a rod by means of special bolts of the raised durability and two nuts with carving М9х1.

In the top head of a rod the through aperture is provided, through which oil in an engine operating time moves on cylinder walls. At rod installation it is necessary to track, that this aperture has been directed aside from a camshaft.

On weight rods share on two groups. Easier (with weight 590 598) are marked by the yellow label put on a head. On heavier rods (600 609) the label has blue colour. All rods in the engine should have identical weight at what at updating the weight of heavier rods is led to weight of easier, rather the reverse.

The scheme of procedure of measurement of a workshop of car-care centre of a rod is shown on an illustration. During weighing the rod should settle down horizontally. The difference of weights of the rods weighed both from outside bottom, and from outside top heads should make no more than 2 6 weight Updating is made by removal of a material from the top head and a cover of the bottom head in the places designated by arrows on an illustration. The maximum admissible thickness of a layer removed from the top head is limited to distance from a plane remaining after processing to an axis of an aperture under installation of a piston finger. The given distance should make of durability reasons not less than 15 mm. In case of the bottom head the distance is measured from the processed plane to an axis шатунного the bearing and should make not less than 35 mm.


The diesel engine and the petrol engine of 1.6 l

As a whole the design of shatunno-piston assemblages is similar 1.3 l described for engines, with that difference that possibility of installation of rods of the repair sizes (see Specifications) is provided. Besides, in diesel engines rods are equipped маслораспылителями coolings of pistons.

REMOVAL

The engine of 1.3 l

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Remove a head of cylinders, the pallet картера the engine and a gear wheel of the oil pump. Make sure of reliability of landing of sleeves of cylinders, in case of need fix them by means of special washers.
2. Check up the bottom heads of rods and a cover шатунных bearings on presence of identification labels in the form of the figures which have been beaten out of a lateral surface of components. Marks should correspond to numbering of cylinders (it is considered the first the cylinder nearest to газораспределительной of a chain).
3. In case of need independently mark pierced on rods and their covers лыски (take advantage of a paint or кернером).
4. Check up axial люфт rods, probeом лезвийного type having measured backlash size between their bottom heads and cheeks of cranks. If the result of measurement exceeds the admissible value stipulated in Specifications, it is necessary to replace a corresponding rod.
5. Having turned a cranked shaft, result pistons of 2nd and 3rd cylinders in positions НМТ.
6. Give fixing nuts and uncover the bottom head of a rod with the loose leaf enclosed in it шатунного the bearing of a cranked shaft.
7. If dismantle is made only for the purpose of replacement of loose leaves, remove a rod from a shaft neck (try not to damage a neck of a shaft and a cylinder mirror - on hairpins of fastening of a cover of the bearing it is better to pull pieces of a fuel hose) and take from its head the top loose leaf of the bearing.
8. Combine removed with each of rods components separately.
9. Remove components of the bottom heads of rods of pistons of 1st and 4th cylinders. Operate extremely cautiously not to damage a mirror of cylinders.
10. Remove a step нагарообразования in the top part of each of cylinders.


Engines of 1.6 l and diesel

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Remove a head of cylinders, the pallet картера, маслоотражатель, the oil pump and маслозаборник.
2. Having lowered pistons in average position, feel a finger of a mirror of cylinders, checking them on presence of step deterioration around the top border of a course of pistons. Steps should be removed by means of a special vertical drill, otherwise it will be impossible to exclude probability of damage of pistons in the course of extraction шатунных assemblages.
3. Чертилкой процарапайте on the bottom of each of pistons number of the corresponding cylinder.
4. With the help probeа лезвийного type measure axial люфт landings of rods to necks of a cranked shaft. Results of measurements write down.
5. On the diesel engine turn out fixing screws and take from the nests of a nozzle маслораспылителей coolings of pistons.

6. Having turned a cranked shaft, expose pistons of 1st and 4th cylinders in positions НМТ. In case of need накерните on rods and covers of number of cylinders, an arrow designate orientation of covers concerning rods.

7. Try to remember orientation of shatunno-piston assemblages to the engine. Depending on type of the engine of assemblage can are marked in the various ways: on turned aside газораспределительного a belt dot labels, risks are put to the party of the bottom heads and their covers, or ledges on moulding are provided the various form. If factory marks do not manage to be found out, put labels independently.
8. In stages (on a half-turn for the approach) ослабьте bolts of fastening of a cover, uncover with the bottom loose leaf. In order to avoid mess at assemblage glue the loose leaf to a cover an adhesive tape. Repeat procedure for assemblage.
9. The hammer handle push out assemblages through cylinders, take the top loose leaves and glue their adhesive tape to rods.
10. Operating in a former order remove shatunno-piston assemblages of 2nd and 3rd cylinders.

CHECK

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

1. Having passed a flat sting of a small screw-driver in specially provided groove take a lock ring. Heat up the piston to 60С.

2. Now the finger should to leave freely the piston and an aperture in the top head of a rod.

3. Arm with the special tool (or an edge old measuring probeа) and remove from the piston piston rings. Do not forget that rings are made of a fragile material and can easily break at excessive раскрывании locks - take care of protection of hands and eyes. The removed rings can be thrown out - at assemblage they are subject to replacement without fail.

4. A fragment of an old ring accurately remove coal adjournment from flutes under installation of piston rings. Try not to damage walls and a bottom of flutes.
5. Carefully clear of a deposit of the bottom of pistons. After соскабливания the basic layer of adjournment smooth out the bottom a wire brush or an emery paper.

Watch safety of marks of pistons.

6. Having finished cleaning, wash out flutes under installation of rings by solvent, then carefully dry pistons. Make sure of passableness drainage масловозвратных apertures of flutes.
7. Check up a condition of pistons. Normal deterioration is shown in the form of uniform vertical development on a persistent surface of the piston and accompanied by landing easing in the flute top компрессионного rings. In case of revealing of traces of any abnormal deterioration the piston should be investigated attentively about its suitability to the further use, then to try to reveal and eliminate a cause of infringement.
8. Presence on a skirt of the piston of scratches or задиров can be regarded as consequence of an overheat caused by infringement of serviceability of functioning of systems of cooling or greasing, or inadmissible excess of temperature of combustion of an air-fuel mix. Прогары skirts are usually caused by break of gases from chambers of combustion as a result of deterioration of cylinders or piston rings. The burn-out of the bottom of the piston testifies presence of infringements of installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition and a mix detonation. Corrosion of the piston in the form of small cavities specifies on hit in the chamber of combustion/karter of the engine of a cooling liquid. Try to establish the reasons of infringements and to eliminate them.
9. Check up rods, fingers and covers of the bottom heads of rods on presence of cracks and other mechanical damages. Having laid rods on a flat surface, check up them on presence of signs of deformations (in case of absence of confidence, address for the help to experts of car-care centre). Estimate a condition of plugs of the top heads of rods.

10. By means of a micrometer measure diameters of all four pistons on distance of 10 mm from a cut of its skirt in a plane located at right angle to an axis of a piston finger. If the result of measurement falls outside the limits the range stipulated in Specifications, the piston is subject to replacement.

If in the course of performance of major repairs the block of cylinders was exposed расточке, or replacement of sleeves (model 1.3) was made, it is necessary to pick up the new complete set of pistons of the repair size. Results of measurements write down - they be required later at calculation of backlashes of landing of pistons in cylinders (see more low).

11. Having enclosed a new piston ring in a corresponding flute on the piston, probeом лезвийного type measure a landing backlash of a ring. Serially check up landing of each of piston rings. If the result of any of measurements falls outside the limits an admissible range, the piston is subject to replacement. Just in case check up correctness of a choice of rings, having measured their thickness by a micrometer.

12. By Columbus нониусного type measure internal diameters of nests under landing of piston fingers in the top heads of rods. Then define diameters of fingers). Subtracting from results of the first measurements results of the last, define backlashes of landing of fingers in heads. Compare results of calculations to requirements of Specifications. In case of need the plug of a rod and a nest in the piston should be pierced, and the finger is replaced new, the repair size. Performance of the given work will charge more correctly to experts of car-care centre.

13. On engines of 1.3 l rods are broken on two weight categories, on covers of the bottom heads of rods corresponding marks are put. Easier rods aim a yellow paint, heavier - dark blue. At replacement of rods it is necessary to select replaceable components from the same weight group. In case of absence of marks it is necessary to address for consultation to experts of the firm service-centre of company Skoda.
14. Correctness of orientation of pistons on rods is defined on the marks put on the bottoms (the bottom should be cleared of a deposit).
15. On engines of 1.3 l put on the bottom of the piston of the marksman should specify forward on the engine (towards an arrangement of the oil filter). The rod should be развернутмаслотоками back.
16. On models 1.6 of l and diesel engines of the marksman on the piston bottom should be developed aside газораспределительного a belt. The rod and a cover of its bottom head are established done in their bases проточкой in specified by an arrow on the piston the party.

17. Grease a piston finger and the plug of the top head of a rod with pure impellent oil. Establish the piston on a rod. Fix a finger two lock rings, having developed their locks on 180 from demountable grooves. Operating in the same order, mount the remained shatunno-piston assemblages.